Water Facts

Water Facts

The sections below list some of the pros and cons of bottled water.


The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Trusted Source set the standards for bottled water. They require manufacturers to process and transport bottled water under sanitary conditions and to use processes that ensure the safety of the water.

This means that, in general, bottled water is safe to drink. In very rare cases, however, bottled water recalls occur due to contamination.

One cause for concern is the presence of plastic in bottled water. Research indicates that most bottled water contains microplastics, which may pose health risks.

One 2018 studyTrusted Source, for example, tested 11 globally sourced brands of bottled water from nine different countries. The researchers found that 93% of the bottles showed some signs of microplastic contamination, and that they contained double the amount present in tap water.

These findings suggest that the contamination is at least partially due to the packaging process itself. Researchers are now starting to investigate the impact of these microplastics on human health.

Microplastics appear to fall within the same category of endocrine-disrupting chemicals as obesogensTrusted Source, affecting human, animal, and marine metabolism, reproduction, oxidative stress, and several other factors.

Also, people with weakened immune systems should take special precautions with their drinking water, choosing bottled water that manufacturers have treated to protect against the parasite Cryptosporidium.

Though FDA inspection of bottled water plants is rare, the FDA have recalled two bottled water brands due to contamination. These were Safeway Select in 2001 and Sam’s Choice in 2005.

Consumer access to bottled water information and contaminant levels is limited compared with the tap water disclosure requirements required by the EPA.





While talking about the quality of water there are two terms used for measurement, namely, pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). Often these two terms are mistaken to be interchangeable or sometimes just the same. Several people fail to understand the difference between pH and ORP measurement. Although these two terms hold a few similarities, these terms are different in specific manners. Do you know what the difference between pH measurement and ORP measurement is? Are you well versed with the terms and measurement devices of pH and ORP? If now, then this post is for you. This post discusses pH and ORP individually along with their measurement devices and techniques.

An Overview of pH

The pH is the measuring scale that is used to determine the basicity or acidity of an aqueous solution. This basically indicates the nature of water in terms of acidity or alkalinity. The pH ration is a direct representation of the ration of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions in the solution. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 out of which 7 is the neutral scale. If the pH value is lower than 7, it is said to be acidic in nature, on the other hand, higher than 7 pH means it is basic in nature. The pH scale is a color-gradient measurement scale that indicates a specific color for a specific pH level for easy measurement.

The Process of pH Measurement

The pH level measurement is performed by using a pH meter. Since pH is directly proportional to the exchange of positive H+ ions and negative OH- ions, the pH meter check for gain or loss of H+ and OH- ions. As water’s or an aqueous solution’s pH drops or raises, this indicates loss or gain of H+ or OH- ions tenfold.

The pH meter is an algorithmic scale that checks for the concentration of H+ and OH- ions. If the concentration of H+ ions is higher than OH- ions then the pH is <7 that implies acidic and vice versa. The pH meter indicates a drop in pH by 1 scale, this means the solution has gained tenfold of H+ ions and vice versa.

In water technology, pH measurement is used to predict if there is a possibility of phosphorous, chemical, metallic, etc contamination in water. This helps in ensuring if the water is suitable for domestic, commercial applications and for marine life.

An Overview of ORP

ORP stands for the oxidation-reduction potential of water. It is also known as redox potential. This means ORP is the measure of checking if water has higher oxidizing or reducing potential. The ORP or redox potential of water is tested by using an ORP meter or a redox meter. The ORP meter basically tests the gain or loss of oxygen in the water. Let us discuss how the ORP meter measures ORP value.

The Process of ORP Measurement

The ORP meter consists of an electrode, which functions as a probe or a sensor to check the redox potential of water. As oxygen molecules in the water are continuously under ion transfer which leads to oxidation or reduction. The electrode in the redox meter acts as a donor or acceptor on contrary to the quality of water. If the water possesses oxidation properties, then the electron becomes a donor or vice versa. When the oxygen transfer taking place, the electromotive force generates due to potential difference. This electromotive force varies based on the frequency of ion exchange. The differential electromotive is then measured by an aqua-logger and is displayed by the ORP meter in mV value.

The importance of ORP measurement is essential in water technology as it is known as a measure of the healthiness of the water. As water can be easily contaminated, it is essential to be tested for ORP levels. Healthy water has oxidizing agents that produce aerated water, which shows positive ORP values. Chemically contaminated water may possess sodium, lead, chlorine, contamination which makes it reducing water, which might give the harmful effect of free radicals.

Note: Even though pH and ORP are two different factors, it is important to note that pH is not impacted by ORP but ORP is impacted by pH value and chemical contamination of water.

Now that pH and ORP are differentiated and functions of individual measurement devices are discussed, it is advised to buy ORP meter and pH meters for accurate water quality testing. Cannon Water Technology, Inc is a trusted supplier of water technology products like ORP meters and pH meters. You can get these products at their inventory from high-end brands like Myron L, Sensorex, etc.



How an ionizer works

A water ionizer is a small kitchen appliance that separates tap water into two separate streams - one alkaline and one acidic - through a process called electrolysis. An ionizer is connected to a home’s water supply either through a diverter valve installed on the kitchen faucet or directly through a T-adapter connected to the cold water line under the sink.


Water enters the ionizer through an inlet port at the bottom of the unit and is first filtered to remove common pollutants, particulate matter, chlorine, odour and organic matter present in tap water. 


The water then flows through an electrolysis chamber which contains positively and negatively charged platinum-covered titanium electrodes. These electrodes ionise the soluble minerals in the water: positively charged ions gather at the negative electrode to create alkaline water, also referred to as "reduced water" while negatively charged ions gather at the positive electrode to make acid water, also known as "oxidized water". 

  • ALKALINE WATER, which comes out of the top spout on the ionizer, is the fraction that we drink and cook with.  It contains a high concentration of positively charged minerals that are beneficial for our health, such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium.
  • ACIDIC WATER, which is dispensed through the bottom hose or spout, is used externally for cleaning and disinfecting the skin and household surfaces.  It is discharged into the sink when it is not needed or saved for later use.

How does ionization affect the molecular structure of water?

Water that enters the electrolytic cell is subjected to a small electric current which passes between the plates, causing the water molecules [H2O] to split into two ions: a negatively charged hydroxyl ion [OH-] and a positively charged hydrogen ion [H+].


At the exit of the electrolytic cell, the water is separated into two streams:

  • The alkaline water stream contains a larger proportion of hydroxyl ions [OH-] which act as a powerful antioxidant, or reducing agent, because these ions have spare electrons that can easily be donated to our cells.  Antioxidants neutralizes the oxidative damage caused by electron scavenging free radicals in our body.
  • The acidic water stream contains a larger proportion of hydrogen ions [H+] which, contrary to hydroxyl ions, act as a powerful oxidant or disinfectant capable of killing bacteria and other pathogens on contact (when pH is below 2.7).  See uses of acidic water.

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