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Our Research

Welcome to our research hub, where knowledge meets empowerment on the path to better health. Here, we're delighted to share a curated collection of insightful research papers exploring the transformative benefits of Alkaline Ionized Reducing water, Electrolysed Reducing Water (ERW), and Alkaline Reducing Mineral Water on our well-being.

Through these papers, we delve into the profound connection between acidity, inflammation, and overall health, illuminating the significance of maintaining an optimal acid-alkaline balance. From exploring the impact of antioxidants to understanding the effects of poor nutrition, each study sheds light on essential themes crucial for holistic wellness.

Our goal is simple: to equip you with the knowledge and understanding needed to make informed choices about your health journey. We believe that by sharing this valuable information, we can empower individuals to take proactive steps towards improved vitality and well-being.


So, dive in, explore, and discover the insights that resonate with you. Remember, as we learn and grow together, let's extend the spirit of kindness by sharing this wealth of knowledge with others. Together, let's embark on a journey towards a healthier, happier life.


Find insightful research and articles on Contaminants below.


The review article "Fluoride and Brain: A Review" by Debosree Ghosh and Suvendu Ghosh discusses the toxic effects of fluoride on the mammalian central nervous system, particularly focusing on the brain. It highlights that fluoride, a highly reactive and toxic element, can cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in brain tissues. This accumulation disrupts normal brain metabolism, generates free radicals, and leads to various toxic effects, including interference with neurotransmitter levels and oxidative stress. These disruptions are linked to several brain pathologies, including reduced intelligence, impaired learning and memory, and potential associations with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. The review also covers the mechanisms of fluoride toxicity, including excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, and emphasizes the need for further research and potential remedies to mitigate fluoride's harmful effects on the brain.

Link: https://ijpsr.com/?action=download_pdf&postid=62474


The study by Choi et al. (2012) systematically reviewed and analyzed 27 epidemiological studies to examine the effects of fluoride exposure on children's neurodevelopment, focusing on IQ scores. The meta-analysis, which included studies primarily from rural China, found a significant inverse relationship between high fluoride exposure and IQ, indicating that children in high-fluoride areas had lower IQ scores compared to those in low-fluoride areas. The standardized mean difference in IQ was -0.45, suggesting a notable reduction in IQ due to fluoride exposure. Despite substantial heterogeneity among the studies, the association remained consistent, underscoring the need for further research with detailed exposure assessments and consideration of confounding factors. The findings highlight potential public health concerns regarding fluoride levels in drinking water.



The article "Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" published in Environmental Health Perspectives investigates the effects of fluoride exposure on children's neurodevelopment. The study, conducted by Choi et al., systematically reviews and analyzes data from 27 epidemiological studies. These studies compared cognitive outcomes, particularly IQ scores, between children in high-fluoride and low-fluoride areas.

Key findings include:
1. Neurodevelopmental Impact: Children in areas with high fluoride exposure had significantly lower IQ scores compared to those in low-fluoride areas. The standardized mean difference in IQ scores was -0.45, indicating a notable adverse effect.
2. Study Methods: The analysis used random-effects models to estimate the standardized mean differences and performed sensitivity analyses to ensure robustness. They also conducted tests for heterogeneity and publication bias.
3. Future Research: The study highlights the need for further research with detailed individual-level data on prenatal exposure, neurobehavioral performance, and relevant covariates.

The results suggest that high fluoride exposure may negatively impact children's neurodevelopment, emphasizing the importance of monitoring and regulating fluoride levels in the environment.



A 2012 study by Harvard School of Public Health and China Medical University found strong indications that fluoride in drinking water may negatively impact children's cognitive development. This meta-analysis, which reviewed 27 studies primarily from China, revealed that high fluoride exposure is associated with reduced IQ in children, with an average IQ loss equivalent to seven points. Despite differences and limitations among the studies, the researchers highlight the potential neurotoxicity of fluoride, suggesting it could be as harmful as other known neurotoxicants like lead and mercury. They call for further research to better understand fluoride's impact on the developing brain, emphasizing its importance for public health.



The study titled "Impact of Drinking Water Fluoride on Human Thyroid Hormones: A Case-Control Study" published in *Scientific Reports* investigates the relationship between fluoride levels in drinking water and thyroid hormone levels in humans. Conducted in the Yazd Greater Area (YGA) of Iran, the research involved comparing thyroid hormone levels—specifically TSH, T3, and T4—in individuals exposed to different fluoride concentrations in drinking water.

Key findings include:
- A significant correlation between fluoride exposure and changes in thyroid hormone levels. Elevated fluoride levels were associated with increased TSH and decreased T3 levels, indicating a potential impact on thyroid function.
- Hypothyroidism was more prevalent in areas with higher fluoride concentration in drinking water. However, concentrations below 0.5 mg/L were not found to significantly contribute to hypothyroidism.
- Various factors such as gender, family history of thyroid disease, water consumption, physical activity, and pre-existing conditions like diabetes and hypertension also influenced thyroid hormone levels and the risk of hypothyroidism.

The study concludes that while fluoride exposure from drinking water can affect thyroid hormone levels, other lifestyle and genetic factors also play a significant role in thyroid health.

For more detailed information, you can access the full article: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-20696-4


NORTH SUTTON, N.H., March 16, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — A court order has led to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) releasing a finalized systematic review of fluoride’s neurotoxicity that was blocked by government officials and concealed from the public since May 2022, according to the Fluoride Action Network. The NTP reported 52 of 55 studies found decreases in child IQ with increased fluoride.



Find insightful research and articles on Health below.


The article "Circadian rhythms and the kidney" published in *Nature Reviews Nephrology* explores the intricate relationship between circadian rhythms and kidney function. It highlights the role of circadian clocks in regulating various renal processes, emphasizing that the kidney's circadian rhythms influence key functions such as blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and electrolyte balance.

Key points from the article include:

1. Circadian Rhythms in Renal Function: The kidney's circadian clock controls the timing of various physiological processes, ensuring that kidney function aligns with the body's overall circadian rhythms. This synchronization is crucial for maintaining homeostasis.

2. Molecular Mechanisms: The article delves into the molecular mechanisms underpinning circadian regulation in the kidney. It discusses how core clock genes, such as PER, CRY, CLOCK, and BMAL1, orchestrate the rhythmic expression of genes involved in renal function.

3. Impact on Health: Disruptions in circadian rhythms, such as those caused by shift work, sleep disorders, or irregular feeding schedules, can adversely affect kidney function and contribute to conditions like hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

4. Therapeutic Implications: Understanding the circadian regulation of kidney function opens new avenues for chronotherapy, where treatments are timed to align with the body's natural rhythms, potentially enhancing their efficacy and reducing side effects.

The article underscores the importance of considering circadian rhythms in both basic research and clinical practice to improve renal health and manage kidney-related diseases effectively.

For more detailed information, you can read the full article:



Anthropogenic contaminants in water can impose risks to reproductive health. Most of these compounds are known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDCs can impact the endocrine system and subsequently impair the development and fertility of non-human animals and humans. The source of chemical contamination in water is diverse, originating from byproducts formed during water disinfection processes, release from industry and livestock activity, or therapeutic drugs released into sewage. This review discusses the occurrence of EDCs in water such as disinfection byproducts, fluorinated compounds, bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, and estrogens, and it outlines their adverse reproductive effects in non-human animals and humans.



In this paper, the adsorption of humic acid (HA) on natural maifan stone (MS) in aqueous medium was investigated. The changes in MS after adsorption have been characterized explicitly. The adsorption behavior was studied by varying the factors of pH (5–10), reaction time (10–180 min), initial HA concentration (5–50 mg/L), adsorbent dosage (0.1–1.2 g), and temperature (25–45 °C). The kinetics of the adsorption process of HA was fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.99). The isothermal results revealed that the adsorption process is favorable, and highly fitting Langmuir models (R2 > 0.99) were used. Additionally, the obtained maximum adsorption capacity of MS for HA was approximately 1 mg/g. The adsorption process of HA onto MS was endothermic according to the thermodynamic study. The changes in the excitation–emission–matrix of HA and the X-ray diffraction of MS after adsorption indicate the interaction of HA and MS. However, the reason for these changes is still unclear. Thus, the results show that the natural MS exhibited a certain adsorption capacity for HA. It is promising to develop novel natural MS-based materials for adsorption of HA.


Included 100 people found a significant difference in whole blood viscosity after consuming high-pH water compared to regular water after a strenuous workout. Viscosity is the direct measurement of how efficiently blood flows through the vessels.



Previous research has shown fluid replacement beverages ingested after exercise can affect hydration biomarkers. No specific hydration marker is universally accepted as an ideal rehydration parameter following strenuous exercise. Currently, changes in body mass are used as a parameter during post-exercise hydration. Additional parameters are needed to fully appreciate and better understand rehydration following strenuous exercise. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial assessed the effect of high-pH water on four biomarkers after exercise-induced dehydration.


One hundred healthy adults (50 M/50 F, 31 ± 6 years of age) were enrolled at a single clinical research center in Camden, NJ and completed this study with no adverse events. All individuals exercised in a warm environment (30 °C, 70% relative humidity) until their weight was reduced by a normally accepted level of 2.0 ± 0.2% due to perspiration, reflecting the effects of exercise in producing mild dehydration. Participants were randomized to rehydrate with an electrolyzed, high-pH (alkaline) water or standard water of equal volume (2% body weight) and assessed for an additional 2-h recovery period following exercise in order to assess any potential variations in measured parameters. The following biomarkers were assessed at baseline and during their recovery period: blood viscosity at high and low shear rates, plasma osmolality, bioimpedance, and body mass, as well as monitoring vital signs. Furthermore, a mixed model analysis was performed for additional validation.


After exercise-induced dehydration, consumption of the electrolyzed, high-pH water reduced high-shear viscosity by an average of 6.30% compared to 3.36% with standard purified water (p = 0.03). Other measured biomarkers (plasma osmolality, bioimpedance, and body mass change) revealed no significant difference between the two types of water for rehydration. However, a mixed model analysis validated the effect of high-pH water on high-shear viscosity when compared to standard purified water (p = 0.0213) after controlling for covariates such as age and baseline values.


A significant difference in whole blood viscosity was detected in this study when assessing a high-pH, electrolyte water versus an acceptable standard purified water during the recovery phase following strenuous exercise-induced dehydration.


Alkaline Water

Find insightful research and articles on Alkaline Water below.


Very low or very high concentrations of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) or total hardness in drinking water have been empirically recognized as the cause of the problems with corrosion, scaling, or taste of water. A large body of scientific evidence over the last 60 years has also attributed health problems to both extremes of these minerals in water. For example, drinking water low in Mg significantly increases the likelihood of cardiovascular mortality. This knowledge is not properly considered in the drinking water quality regulations, especially as more and more water is now produced by desalination disturbing its natural mineral composition. Although the current EU Drinking Water Directive does not include limits for hardness, Ca or Mg, most member states regulate these parameters either through law (12 countries) or technical guidance (7 countries), and several countries have issued educational information for the public. However, the regulations in most countries are not based on current research and not comparable because some provide a recommended range while others provide mandatory minimum or maximum limit values. This summary of the situation in 28 European Union countries is intended to provide information that can contribute to the implementation of the revised EU Directive.


Magnesium is a remarkable mineral that plays a crucial role in keeping your body functioning at its best. Let's dive into the benefits of magnesium:

Involved in Biochemical Reactions:
- Magnesium is found in every cell of your body and acts as a helper molecule in over 600 biochemical reactions.
- Some of its key roles include energy creation, protein formation, gene maintenance, muscle movements, and nervous system regulation¹.

Exercise Performance:
- During exercise, you may need more magnesium than when at rest.
- Magnesium helps transport blood sugar into muscles and clears lactate, which can cause fatigue during physical activity.
- Studies suggest that magnesium supplements can enhance exercise performance, especially in older adults and those with deficiencies¹.

Mood and Sleep:
- Magnesium may improve mood and sleep quality.
- Adequate magnesium intake has been linked to reduced depression and anxiety³.

Blood Sugar Regulation:
- Magnesium helps regulate blood sugar levels by influencing insulin sensitivity.
- Including magnesium-rich foods in your diet can support overall metabolic health¹.

Bone Health:
- Magnesium contributes to bone strength and density.
- It works alongside calcium and vitamin D to maintain healthy bones.

Migraine Prevention:
- Some evidence suggests that magnesium supplementation may reduce the frequency and severity of migraines¹.

Remember, you can find magnesium in foods like nuts, leafy greens, legumes, and seeds. If you're curious about incorporating more magnesium into your diet, those are great options to explore!


Calcium and Vitamin D are essential for bone health, playing a crucial role in the maintenance and development of strong bones. Calcium is a mineral that helps build and maintain bone structure, while Vitamin D enhances calcium absorption in the gut and maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations for normal bone mineralization.

Key Points:

  1. Calcium's Role: Calcium is stored in bones and teeth, providing structural support. It's also necessary for muscle function, nerve signaling, and blood clotting. If the body doesn't get enough calcium from the diet, it will take calcium from bones, weakening them over time.
  2. Vitamin D's Role: Vitamin D is vital for calcium absorption. Without sufficient Vitamin D, the body can't absorb enough calcium, regardless of intake levels, which can lead to bone disorders such as osteoporosis and rickets.
  3. Sources of Calcium: Dairy products, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, and fortified foods are good sources of calcium.
  4. Sources of Vitamin D: Sun exposure, fatty fish, fortified dairy products, and supplements can help maintain adequate Vitamin D levels.
  5. Recommendations: The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends a daily intake of 1,000 mg of calcium for adults up to age 50 and 1,200 mg for women over 50 and men over 70. For Vitamin D, the recommended daily allowance is 400-800 IU for adults, increasing to 800-1,000 IU for those over 50.
  6. Supplementation: When dietary intake is insufficient, supplements can help meet the recommended daily requirements. However, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any supplementation.
  7. Bone Health Benefits: Adequate intake of calcium and Vitamin D helps prevent bone loss, reduces the risk of fractures, and supports overall bone health throughout life.


The study "Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy" highlights magnesium's critical role in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including ATP metabolism, DNA and RNA synthesis, muscle contraction, blood pressure regulation, insulin metabolism, and nerve transmission. Low magnesium levels are linked to chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, migraines, and ADHD. Maintaining adequate magnesium levels is essential for preventing and treating these conditions.


Almost everyone knows that vitamins, minerals and trace elements are important. Young animals in particular need extra vitamins and minerals in the first phase of life because they have some deficiencies at birth. In this article, we reveal the key vitamins and minerals, what they do and why they are so important.



In Japan, alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) apparatus have been approved as a medical device. And for the patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, drinking AEW has been found to be effective in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms. But some users of AEW apparatus do not have abdominal indefinite complaint. Little attention has been given to the benefit for the users which have no abdominal indefinite complaint. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect on health, including gastrointestinal symptoms, when a person without abdominal indefinite complaint, etc., drinks AEW on a daily basis. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial has been designed. Four-week period of everyday water drinking, PW drinking group: drink purified tap water as a placebo, AEW drinking group: drink alkaline electrolyzed water which made by electrolysis of purified tap water. Before the experiment and after the 4-week period of water drinking, Blood tests, physical fitness evaluations, and questionnaire evaluations is conducted. In this study, we did not specifically select patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Sufficiently clear effect could not be confirmed. But the stools were more normal, and, as shown in the previous report, that drinking AEW is considered to contribute to intestinal normalization. In addition, when drinking AEW, a high proportion of the respondents said that they felt they were able to sleep soundly, and the proportion of subjects who answered that they felt good when awakening increased. The effect of reducing oxidative stress, thus allowing for improved sleep, was exhibited by drinking AEW containing hydrogen, which is considered to be an antioxidant substance. This research were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine (No. 837) and were registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN ID: UMIN000031800) on March 22, 2018.


Find insightful research and articles on Hydrogen below.

A website dedicated to studies done on Hydrogen water. There are about 1350 studies on this site, some of them are on animals, several hunderdred are on humans, and some are specifically on diseases like parkinson's disease, alsimers, dementia, chronic fatigue, muscle aches, joint pain, arthritis and some are general studies on the affects of hydrogen water, lik reduction of inflammation, absorption of micronutrients and how it helps gut flora and the bacteria in your gut. 



Hydrogen-rich water reduces inflammatory responses and prevents apoptosis of peripheral blood cells in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.”

Summary: In this study, researchers investigated the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water (HW) on oxidative stress and immune functions in healthy adults. The study involved a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial where participants consumed either 1.5 liters per day of HW or plain water for four weeks.

Key findings:

  1. Antioxidant Capacity: While overall changes in serum antioxidant potential (BAP), reactive oxygen derivatives, and 8-Oxo-2’-deoxyguanosine did not differ significantly between the HW and plain water groups, individuals aged 30 and above showed greater improvement in BAP with HW consumption.
  2. Cellular Protection: Apoptosis (cell death) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was significantly lower in the HW group.
  3. Immune Cell Frequencies: Flow cytometry analysis revealed a decrease in CD14+ cells (a type of immune cell) in the HW group.
  4. Transcriptomic Differences: RNA sequencing of PBMCs showed distinct transcriptomes between the HW and plain water groups. Notably, inflammatory response pathways and NF-κB signaling were down-regulated in the HW group.

In summary, hydrogen-rich water appears to enhance antioxidant capacity and reduce inflammatory responses in healthy adults. These findings highlight its potential health benefits



In this comprehensive review, the authors explore the properties and potential therapeutic effects of electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW), also known as alkaline ionized water. ERW is produced through water electrolysis using devices called “alkaline water ionizers.” Over time, various claims have been associated with ERW, including its negative oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), alkaline pH, and the presence of hydrogen gas (H₂). However, pseudoscientific marketing and misconceptions have hindered mainstream acceptance of ERW’s biological effects.

The study systematically examines these claims and debunks them one by one. Through in vitro and in vivo research, it is conclusively demonstrated that molecular hydrogen (H₂) is the exclusive agent responsible for both the negative ORP and the observed therapeutic effects of ERW. No metaphysical conjectures (such as microclustering or free electrons) are needed to explain ERW’s effects; conventional chemistry suffices.

The study emphasizes the importance of measuring the H₂ concentration in ERW to ensure comparability with clinical studies. In essence, ERW’s benefits can be understood through the well-established biological effects of molecular hydrogen.



Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The high costs, inconvenient administration, and side effects of current Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs often lead to poor adherence to the long-term treatment of MS. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, and anti-cancer effects. In the present study, we explored the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on the progress of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for MS. We found that prophylactic administration of both 0.36 mM and 0.89 mM HRW was able to delay EAE onset and reduce maximum clinical scores. Moreover, 0.89 mM HRW also reduced disease severity, CNS infiltration, and demyelination when administered after the onset of disease. Furthermore, HRW treatment prevented infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes into the CNS and inhibited Th17 cell development without affecting Th1 cell populations. Because HRW is non-toxic, inexpensive, easily administered, and can readily cross the blood–brain barrier, our experiments suggest that HRW may have great potential in the treatment of MS.


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